What is Xanax retard 2mg?

Xanax is an anti-anxiety medication from the group of benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepines act on the brain and central nervous system to produce a calming effect. Benzodiazepine group includes diazepam (Valium), clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), flurazepam (Dalmane) and others.

Xanax is a trade name for the anti-anxiety medication alprazolam. Alprazolam is an antianxiety drug, a derivative of triazolo-benzodiazepine – a benzodiazepine with a triazolo-ring attached to its structure. Alprazolam a benzodiazepine, non-specifically binds with the benzodiazepine receptors BNZ1 and BNZ2. BNZ1 receptor mediates the sleep while BNZ2 receptor affects the muscle relaxation, motor coordination, anticonvulsant activity, and memory.

Xanax works by boosting the effects of a natural chemical made in the brain called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) – by decreasing abnormal excitement in the brain. It slows down the movement of brain chemicals that may have become unbalanced, resulting in a reduction in nervous tension and anxiety. Benzodiazepines produce a variety of effects by modulating the GABA subtype of the GABA receptor, the most prolific inhibitory receptor within the brain.

The mechanism of action is to enhance the inhibitory effect  of endogenous GABA in the CNS by increasing the sensitivity of the GABA-receptor mediator as a result of stimulation of benzodiazepine receptors located in the allosteric center of postsynaptic GABA- receptor activating ascending reticular formation of brain stem neurons and the lateral horns of the spinal cord; reduces the excitability of the subcortical brain structures (the limbic system, thalamus, hypothalamus), inhibits the polysynaptic spinal reflexes. Pronounced anxiolytic activity (reduction of emotional tension, easing anxiety, fear) is combined with moderate soporific effect: it shortens the period of sleep, increases its duration and reduces the number of nighttime awakenings. The mechanism of hypnotic action is inhibition of cell reticular formation of the brain. Stimulation of GABA receptor in the peripheral nervous system may cause vasodilation, decrease cardiac contractility and enhance perfusion.

Xanax generic and brand name

Xanax is also known under the brand names: Azom, Onax, Alltop, Alprox, ALP, Pinix, ZOPAX, Alzam, TAFIL, Xalol, Restyl, Alprazolam LPH, Alplax, Farmapram, Alpralid, Zolomaks, Frontin, Alzolam, Neurol, Xanax retard, Cassadan, Prazolex, Zomiren, Xanor Depot, Helex, Afobam, Aceprax, Alprax, Xanagis.

Why Xanax prescribed?

Xanax is a short-acting drug used to treat severe anxiety disorders, panic disorders with or without agoraphobia, essential tremor, panic attacks, stress, and deterioration of sleep, somatic disorders, neurotic depression and other types of convulsive behaviours.

How Xanax works

Xanax is used for the short-term treatment (up to 8 weeks). If it’s taken for a longer period of time, there is the potential for abuse and dependency. Benzodiazepines are typically prescribed for the treatment of anxiety disorders and insomnia. Xanax also can act as muscle relaxant, anti-convulsing and have hypnotic effects. Xanax works by slowing brain activity, which results in a calm, relaxed effect.

When you experience excessive stress it causes the brain to increase its neuron activity, which results in feelings of anxiety. When you take Xanax, the effects aren’t immediate, but they are relatively quick. If you take a Xanax for the first time, you would likely feel the effects within about an hour. That’s another reason why Xanax can contribute to its likelihood of dependence because faster-acting drugs tend to be more likely to be abused.

Recommended doses of Xanax 

Recommended doses of Xanax vary depending upon the age and diseased state of the patient. The information below includes only the average doses of Xanax. Use Xanax exactly as prescribed by your doctor – if your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do that. Dosage is based on the following factors: the reason why it is being taken, the patient’s age and how the patient responds to treatment. Do not share your medicine with other people. It may not be suitable for them and may harm them. 

What are the pharmacokinetic properties of the drug?

Xanax is completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The peak concentration of Xanax in the plasma, occur in 1-2 hours. Most of the drug (80%) is bound to plasma protein, mainly serum albumin. Plasma levels are proportionate to the dose given; over the dose range of 0.5 to 3.0 mg, peak levels of 8.0 to 37 ng/mL were observed. Xanax is hydroxylated in the liver to α-hydroxyalprazolam, which is also pharmacologically active. Xanax and its metabolites are mainly excreted by kidneys. This and other metabolites are later excreted in urine as glucuronides. Some part of the drug is also excreted in unchanged form.

Which pregnancy category (A; B; C; D; X) has been assigned to Xanax?

Xanax is not recommended for use in pregnancy. Pregnancy risk category: D – Positive evidence of risk. Inform your doctor if you are pregnant or if you are planning to have a child, or if you become pregnant while you are taking Xanax. Xanax is assumed to be capable of causing an increased risk of congenital abnormalities when administered to a pregnant woman during the first trimester. It should be considered that the child born of a mother who is receiving benzodiazepines may be at risk of developing withdrawal symptoms from the drug during the postnatal period. Also, neonatal flaccidity and respiratory problems have been reported in children born of mothers who have been receiving benzodiazepines. Xanax should not be used by nursing mothers – benzodiazepines are known to be passed into breast milk. This can cause infants to become lethargic and lose weight.

How to use the drug?

Xanax is used to manage anxiety disorder or the short-term relief of symptoms of anxiety. Please, note that this is a summary and does not have all possible information about Xanax. Current information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of your doctor. Check the label on the medicine for exact dosing instructions.  Xanax is a fast-acting drug; the majority of its effects are established within an hour after use, with the total duration of the effect being at least 6 hours.

How to store the drug?

Xanax should be stored at controlled room temperature 20-25°C. Keep the drug out of the reach of children. Do not dispose of medicines into the wastewater (in the sink or in the toilet bowl) or in household waste. Ask your health care professional how to get rid of unused or outdated medications.

What special precautions should I follow while using Xanax?

Avoid the use of Xanax in the following cases: if you are hypersensitive to alprazolam or any other benzodiazepines, if you have the acute form of closed-angle glaucoma (however, patients with open-angle glaucoma can use the drug during the appropriate treatment course), in case of parallel usage of Ketoconazole or Itraconazole, if you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, if you are drinking alcohol.

People driving or conducting activities which require vigilance should exercise caution in using Xanax. Older people as well should be cautious in the use of alprazolam due to the possibility of increased susceptibility to side effects, especially loss of coordination and drowsiness.

Xanax side effects

Side effects of Xanax which may occur are:

  • hyperactivity;
  • dry mouth or increased salivation;
  • drowsiness, decreased inhibitions;
  • no fear of danger;
  • hallucinations;
  • agitation and hostility;
  • feeling dizziness;
  • light headed or fainting;
  • speech problems;
  • urinating less than usual or not at all;
  • depressed mood with thoughts of suicide;
  • headache, fatigue;
  • joint pain and unusual weakness (flu like symptoms);
  • changes in appetite (including changes in weight);
  • muscle twitching, tremor and seizure (convulsions);
  • nervousness;
  • restlessness;
  • sleeplessness and sweating;
  • constipation;
  • diarrhea;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • complete memory loss, (amnesia) and concentration problems;
  • pounding in the chest or rapid heartbeat;
  • blurred vision;
  • unsteadiness and clumsiness (impaired coordination and balance).

It is always recommended to consult a doctor if you encounter any of the side effects. Medical attention should be sought immediately in case signs of an allergic reaction occur such as hives, difficulty breathing, swelling of the face, lips, tongue or throat. Medical attention should also be sought immediately if signs of jaundice appear such as yellowing of the skin or eyes.

What should I do in case of an overdose?

Xanax overdose can be mild to severe depending on how much of the drug is taken and if any other depressants have been taken. Overdose may include one or more of the following symptoms: somnolence (difficulty staying awake), dizziness, hypotension, and impaired coordination, mental confusion, impaired motor functions, impaired balance, and respiratory depression, impaired or absent reflexes, hypoventilation, coma, death.

That is prohibited to take Xanax with alcohol or drugs. In the case of the overdose following treatment should be taken: induction of vomiting, gastric lavage, symptomatic therapy, monitor vital signs. In severe hypotension prescribed an injection of norepinephrine. The specific antidote is benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil (administration only in a hospital).

Does Xanax have any interaction with other drugs?

Xanax may interact with other medications, vitamins or herbs. Be aware that if you are taking these drugs together, such interaction can be harmful and can cause serious side effects. The following drugs may increase the effects of Xanax: Ketoconazole, Itraconazole, Nefazodone, Fluvoxamine, Erythromycin, Cimetidine (Tagamet), Oral Contraceptives and HIV protease inhibitors, such as ritonavir.

Benzodiazepines produce extra depressant effects on the central nervous system (CNS) when taken with other psychotropic medication, anticonvulsants, antihistamines, alcohol and other drugs that produce CNS depression.

Does Xanax have any interaction with diseases?

Consult your doctor if you have asthma or other breathing problems, glaucoma, kidney, or liver diseases, history of alcoholism or depression, suicidal thoughts, or an addiction to drugs or alcohol. Do not use Xanax if you are allergic to alprazolam or other benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide (Librium), clorazepate (Tranxene), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), or oxazepam (Serax).